|1423Pope Alexander VI issues Discovery Doctrine: in order for Christianity to "be everywhere increased", lands inhabited by non-Christians should be claimed by Christians.
||1620sRecollets introduce mission schools in Canada and struggle with runaways, student deaths, parental reluctance. None last long.
||1633After an Indigenous man asks French parents to beat him instead of their own misbehaving son, Jesuit Paul le Jeune notes: "Indian nations of these parts … cannot punish a child." Anticipates "trouble … in carrying out our plans of teaching the young!"
||1668British ketch Nonsuch drops anchor off Waskaganish coast. James Bay (JB) Cree find it. Cree-British fur trade begins. Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) is formed.
||1755Founding of British Indian Department (BID), a wing of British Army. Without command power, it needs Indigenous Nation consent for any projects.
||1756-1763Seven Years' War. Britain and France, competing on four continents for colonial lands and resources, both rely on Indigenous military alliances. Needing more, Britain sends missionaries among Nations. At end, Britain claims Canada. King George III issues Royal Proclamation that Nations are self-governing, and "should not be molested or disturbed" in their lands, and, except for regions "ceded to, or purchased by" British Crown, own the land.
||1775-1783Britain, at war with Americans, again relies on Indigenous allies.